The Titular, Cardinal Latino Orsini, replaced the monks with the Gesuati friars of Blessed Giovanni Colombini from Siena. Blessed Antonio Bettini (+ 1487), founded and governed the first community on the Caelian Hill.
The Gesuati resided here from 1454 to 1668. Here their ministries were typical of their movement (which later became an Order), namely works of charity and assistance to the poorest and neediest, particularly during plagues and famines (they were called the “Acquavite Fathers”, because of the distilled solution that they confected and used as a disinfectant and fragrance). Between 1624 –1630, the community numbered 50 religious. The monastery consisted of two courtyards, a vegetable garden, an orchard, two wells and a cistern, plus other adjacent land and buildings. The Gesuati were suppressed by Clement IX in 1668.
From 1668 to 1671, it seems that there were Carmelite (Filippine) nuns. Then from 1671/2 to 1697, Dominican friars from England resided here. Very few religious remained until the arrival of the Vincentians (1697-1773).
The English Dominicans were invited to Sts. John and Paul by Cardinal Philip T. Howard of Norfolk, O.P. (+ 17 June 1694, Rome), to found a College, but nothing came of it. Howard brought significant changes to the monastic buildings, particularly area of the current main entrance.
Innocent XII (Antonio Pignatelli) then gave then Sts. John and Paul to the sons of Saint Vincent de Paul, called Vincentians or Fathers of the Mission, “to prepare young student seminarians—for their novitiate and other functions, which require more solitude”.